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Summary: Given the constant technology upgradation, programming languages assume importance as the base of every innovation. They are the foundation of a wide range of tools used by every business in every sector. Modern world technology would not exist without them. This blog covers the most popular programming languages to help you decide which would work best for your product.

There’s a lot to get excited about in programming languages today. In the context of current sophisticated business models, the ecosystem, community, and availability of programmers are all essential factors to consider. While the list of popular programming languages fluctuates over time, organizations looking to create a new product or update a legacy product will want to future-proof their ideas with a well-supported programming language backed by skilled IT personnel and versatile enough to do the job today – and in the future.

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Top 11 Programming Languages That Will Lead In The Future

The most popular programming languages in 2023 include:

1. Python

python
Python, created in the 1980s, has managed to retain and grow all these years, beating Java as one of the top programming languages in the TIOBE Programming Community Index in October 2021, reflecting several skilled engineers, courses, and third-party vendors.

Benefits of Python

Python is English-syntax based, making it accessible and applicable to various programming needs. Python possesses wide community support, robust libraries, and many frameworks as a well-established language.

Drawbacks of Python

Python is an interpreted language that lacks multithreading, sometimes leading to speed limitations. It can place a heavy drain on memory due to the extensive use of libraries and tasks that use many active objects.

What is Python used for?

Python is a multi-purpose programming language, often called a “universal language,” making it ideal for websites and software, web apps, and desktop apps. You can use it for AI, data analysis, and machine learning.

Platform Web or desktop
Top Python web frameworks

Django – a top Python framework, Django is a free, open-source, and full-stack web framework to develop complex code and apps.

Flask – is available under the BSD license. A “micro-framework,” Flask provides developers flexibility over the tools, databases, and extensions.

CherryPy – a minimalist web framework designed for rapid web app development.

Top Python libraries

TensorFlow – an open-source library for computations and graphs to make neural networks and deep learning.

Pandas – a fast, lightweight library for data analysis and modeling.

NumPy – a popular mathematics library.

PyTorch – based on Torch, a Facebook machine-learning library that supports computations, modeling, and graphing concepts.

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2. Java

java
Java is Google’s preferred programming language for Android, after Kotlin.

Benefits of Java

Java is fast and reliable due to its high level of use over many years, which has helped refine the language and extend it through the vast network of community support, frameworks, and libraries.

Drawbacks of Java

Java possesses strict syntax needs and complex code, which leads to a longer development time. Java is faster than Python but takes up a lot of memory.

What is Java used for

Java helps develop high-performance software on various platforms, including mobile apps, AI, big data, web applications, etc. In addition, Java is probably the most well-known for mobile or in-game console games.

Platform Web, Mobile, desktop
Top Java frameworks

Spring – an open-source framework for creating secure enterprise web applications for any deployment platform, focusing more on the “plumbing” of the app than the business logic.

Struts – Apache Struts is an open-source web app framework following the MVC architecture.

Hibernate – Hibernate ORM is an object-relational mapping tool that maps a domain model to a relational database.

Spark – a web framework for Java & Kotlin, Apache Spark is free and open-source to support data engineering, data science, and machine learning

Top Java libraries

Apache Commons – has 43 modular libraries with domains like Collections, Math, Classes, Database, Caching, I/O Utils.

Google Guava – covers crucial utilities, collections, string manipulation, concurrency utilities, graph libraries, I/O utils, hashing, and more. Has a better software design compared to the Apache Commons library.

Jackson – is a suite of data processing libraries for Java. Also supports data formats such as Avro, BSON, CBOR, CSV, Smile, Protobuf, XML, or YAML and data types such as Guava, Joda, PCollections, and more.

3. C and C++

c and c++
C and C++ are among the oldest languages, ranking individually on the TIOBE index at positions 2 and 4, respectively, with C overtaking Java for the second position.

Benefits of C and C++

C/C++ are mid-level languages and are highly portable across operating systems. C++ is generic, imperative, and object-oriented, with dynamic memory allocation to make it execute faster.

Drawbacks of C and C++

Both C and C++ are complex and hands-on. Debugging is difficult due to complex syntax and pointers, with no support for garbage collection. C is not as secure as C++, but security is a concern with both due to “memory unsafety.”

What are C and C++ used for?

C is for system programming and embedded devices, and OS kernels, but we can use both for application development. C++ is majorly for graphics-heavy software such as games.

Platform Web, Embedded, desktop
Top C and C++ frameworks

Cinder – Cinder is an open-source C++ library for “creative coding.” Supports platform-native windowing and event handling, as well as I/O abstraction, and includes an XML and JSON parsing API.

OpenCV – A BSD-licensed Open Source Computer Vision Library is a computer vision and machine learning library written natively in C++.

Facil.io – High-performance web application C framework

Onion – Library to create simple HTTP servers and web applications

Top C and C++ libraries

The Standard C++ library – operations on file systems and their components, such as paths, directories, and regular files It was an experimental library in C++14, but it will become a standard library in C++17.

Boost – contains code packages to support linear algebra, pseudorandom number generation, multithreading, image processing, regular expressions, string and text processing, and unit testing.

FANN – Fast Artificial Neural Network (FANN) is an open-source neural network library written in C. Features include backpropagation training, evolving topology training, cross-platform, and can use both floating-point and fixed-point numbers.

4. JavaScript

javascript
JavaScript might not be at the top spot in the TIOBE index, but it is the top language according to the past year’s GitHub survey statistics on development.

Benefits of JavaScript

JavaScript offer an exceptional digital experience because of its versatility and ability to ease complex integrations. It is also extremely fast and leverages simple syntax, and can be used to create rich user interfaces and experiences.

Drawbacks of JavaScript

JavaScript is interpreted differently across browsers and is vulnerable to client-side security issues. Most users tend to disable JavaScript due to security fears.

What is JavaScript used for

JavaScript is ideally suited to web app development, single-page app (SPA) development, and native desktop and mobile applications.

Platform Cross-platform (desktop, mobile, web)
Top JavaScript frameworks

CinderAngular – framework for web, mobile web, native mobile, and native desktop applications that leverages Microsoft’s Typescript language and code-splitting to speed loading.

Vue.js – top framework for creating single-page web apps (SPAs) by combining the best of React and Angular.

Node.js – an open-source, cross-platform back-end environment.

Ionic – an open-source hybrid app development framework.

React Native – an open-source, cross-platform UI framework.

Top JavaScript libraries

React.js – React is a library for creating user interface (UI)

jQuery – a small library designed to simplify HTML DOM tree traversal and manipulation, event handling, CSS animation, and Ajax.

5. C#

c#
C# has remained consistently popular, one of the “core” languages. C# is a .NET programming language developed by Microsoft.

Benefits of C#

C# is based on object-oriented programming, making it possible to build the app incrementally and support easier management. C# syntax resembles human language and benefits from using Visual Studio for development.

Drawbacks of C#

C# offer quite the same performance as C++ because of the two-stage compilation. It relies on .NET, which may not be in sync with the overall tech stack and requires even greater knowledge.

What is C# used for

C# is ideal for backend/server-side architecture and for developing Windows desktop applications. Still, it can be used cross-platform and even for mobile app development (Xamarin uses C#). C# is the primary language for game development using the Unity game engine.

Platform Cross-platform, including mobile and enterprise software applications
Top C# frameworks

Accord.NET framework – NET machine learning framework with audio and image processing libraries written entirely in C# for developing high-quality computer vision, computer audition, signal processing, and statistics applications.

Roslyn (.NET Compiler Platform) – a free and open-source C# and Visual Basic compiler with extensive code analysis APIs It enables the development of code analysis tools using the same APIs as Visual Studio.

Top C# libraries

Cake – a cross-platform build automation system with a C# DSL.

DotNetNuke – a web content management system that jumped from No. 14 in 2018 to No. 7 in 2019.

6. R

r
R is a programming language, and free environment developed at Bell Laboratories, similar to the S language.

Benefits of R

R is open-source, allows greater ease of access, and is known for producing powerful graphics and streamlining published work. R works on a variety of operating systems.

Drawbacks of R

R is known to be slow and not well supported, which opens it up to security concerns.

What is R used for

R is for statistical computing (modeling, tests, time-series analysis, clustering) and graphics.

Platform Desktop
Top R frameworks

beaker – a small package and minimal web framework for quickly developing simple and stable web services.

plumber – lets you create a web API by decorating your existing R code with special decorator comments.

ambiorix – an unopinionated web framework package for R and is designed to be flexible and extendable.

Top R libraries

Dplyr – used for data manipulation in R. Can work with local data frames and remote database tables.

Ggplot2 – implements a “grammar of graphics” and is one of the best libraries for data visualization in R.

7. Go

go
Go (Golang) is an open-source programming language developed by Google for server-side networking and infrastructure but later extended into other use cases.

Benefits of Go

Created by Google, Go uses a typical approach of making things simple, making it an easy language to use and learn.

Drawbacks of Go

Go is still a relatively ‘new’ language, meaning there has been less time to develop comprehensive frameworks or libraries or work out the language’s kinks (e.g., inconsistencies do arise).

What is Go used for?

Go is mainly used on server-side / backend systems but can also be used for DevOps, cloud, artificial intelligence, data science, and even some games.

Platform Cross-platform, desktop
Top Go frameworks

kit – A standard library for microservices.

echo – High performance, minimalist Go web framework

go-zero – A cloud-native Go microservices framework with cli tool for productivity.

fiber – Express inspired web framework written in Go

Top Go libraries

GORM – achieves its objectives through the use of RAW SQL and SQL Builders, as well as extensible plugins for complete customization and auto migration tools.

Vegeta – a flexible tool for HTTP load testing It was created specifically for testing HTTP services.

8. HTML

html
HTML is the standard markup language for the web.

Benefits of HTML

HTML is easy to learn and use, making it the backbone of any web page and accessible to even novice users. HTML is supported by extensive frameworks and grid systems for responsive design, allowing developers to focus more on refinement than full coding. Text is compressible, helping with speed.

Drawbacks of HTML

HTML is designed for static content. Although newer HTML standards are more secure, added thought needs to be given to address security.

What is HTML used for

HTML is used to create webpages, often assisted by CSS (cascading style sheets) and scripting languages such as JavaScript.

Platform Web
Top HTML frameworks

Twitter Bootstrap – has a 12-grid responsive layout, 13 custom jQuery plugins for common UIs like carousels and modal windows, a Bootstrap customizer, and more.

Foundation – has rapid-prototyping capabilities and a responsive grid system.

Top HTML libraries

The Quackit HTML Code Library – a library, or list, of HTML codes. The pages within the library contain snippets of HTML code that can be copied and pasted into your HTML documents.

9. Swift

swift
Swift is an iOS programming language introduced by Apple in 2014, becoming open-source one year later.

Benefits of Swift

Swift is a friendly language, ideally suited for new language programmers learning with the Swift Playgrounds, with core attributes of “safety, fastness, and expressiveness.” Swift works with existing Objective-C code and with Cocoa frameworks.

Drawbacks of Swift

Swift is still an immature computer language with few libraries, frameworks, and tools and limitations in the number of skilled developers. Swift is highly dependent on third-party tools, leading to potential compatibility issues.

What is Swift used for

Swift – for iOS, iPadOS, macOS, tvOS, watchOS, and tvOS apps and Linux.

Platform Mobile (Apple iOS apps, specifically)
Top Swift frameworks

Kitura – an open-source server-side Swift web framework. Build web applications and REST APIs with full database support using your Swift skills.

Perfect – a web server and toolkit for Swift developers creating applications and other REST services.

Vapor – is a Swift HTTP web framework. It provides a visually appealing and simple foundation for your next website, API, or cloud project.

Top Swift libraries

SnapKit -is the best Swift UI Layout Library. It allows iOS developers to change auto-layout constraints dynamically using elegant and shortcode.

Alamofire – is an HTTP networking library built on NSURLSession and the Foundation URL Loading System.

10. PHP

php
PHP is a consistent top performer, but its popularity has declined. PHP is embedded in HTML and is an open-source server-side scripting language.

Benefits of PHP

PHP is famous for its simplicity, speed, and flexibility. PHP is open-source and object-oriented with a simple syntax. PHP is well-supported by all leading databases, portable across all platforms, and supported by many frameworks.

Drawbacks of PHP

As an interpreted language, PHP is known to execute more slowly. PHP is also not a strict language, so PHP code can become poorly structured when worked on by various teams or over time.

What is PHP used for

PHP is used primarily in web development, used by over 78% of all websites whose server-side programming is known. PHP can be used for static and dynamic/interactive web pages, applications, and eCommerce platforms, with particular strengths for databases.

Platform Cross-platform (desktop, mobile, web)
Top PHP frameworks

Laravel – Laravel is a web app development framework known for expressive and elegant syntax. Laravel leverages the Blade template engine and includes built-in object-oriented libraries.

Symfony – Known to be one of the most reliable frameworks, Symfony provides bundles and components to improve developer productivity.

CodeIgniter – CodeIgniter is a very light framework (2MB with documentation), MVC-based, fast, reliable, and ideal for dynamic web apps.

CakePHP – CakePHP leverages a templating system and lets developers create standalone libraries, components, extensions, and helpers to reuse code when making web apps.

Yii – an open-source PHP framework for large-scale web apps, with extensible tools, integration with jQuery and AJAX features, and Gii to ease the process of rapid prototyping.

Top PHP libraries

Guzzle – Guzzle functions as a specific PHP client for sending HTTP requests to web servers. The library offers a simple interface for generating query strings, POST requests, HTTP cookies, and other attributes.

PHPUnit – the most effective PHP library for unit testing PHP web applications.

11. Kotlin

kotlin
Kotlin was adopted as the official programming language for developing Android applications by Google in 2017, replacing Java with a clean, powerful language that fixes all the things developers disliked about Java.

Benefits of Kotlin

Kotlin is open-source, mature, and well-supported. More than that, Kotlin improves upon Java by being simple, powerful, and less prone to errors. Kotlin is faster to set up and reduces maintenance over Java.

Drawbacks of Kotlin

If switching from Java, there can be a high cost to train in Kotlin, and there are fewer Kotlin experts.

What is Kotlin used for

Kotlin is primarily used for Android applications, with many Java apps being rewritten in Kotlin.

Platform Web, Mobile, Desktop, Server
Top Kotlin frameworks

Ktor – Ktor Framework does not enforce restrictions on the projects’ technology – logging, templating, messaging, persistent, serializing, dependency injection, etc.

Kweb – is a Kotlin library that can be easily added to new or existing projects.

Top Kotlin libraries

Kotest – provides you with the testing framework and the assertion framework.

Exposed – a compact SQL library follows an important design rule emphasizing simplicity and minimalism.

5 Other Popular Programming Languages to Pay Attention to

Some of the most in-demand programming languages include:

Dart

Google developed Dart for web and mobile apps. Dart is object-oriented and compiles to native code or JavaScript based on C-style syntax.

Ruby

Ruby is a consistently popular choice among language programmers for various cross-platform projects. Ruby is an interpreted, high-level, dynamically typed language that leverages just-in-time compilation.

Visual Basic

The current version of Visual Basic was launched in 2002 and runs on .NET, a multi-paradigm object-oriented programming language. Developed by Microsoft, Visual Basic is used to make desktop apps for Windows.

Perl

A family of two interpreted, dynamic programming languages favored for CGI and system and network programming and GUIs. Though not elegant, Perl is a powerful language, which some refer to as the “duct tape that holds the Internet together.”

Scala

A language that supports object-oriented and functional programming, Scala is interoperable with Java, making it well-suited for Android development.

How to choose the right programming language for your business?

If we need to choose a language for a project, we must ask ourselves a few questions before making any decisions. For instance, what type of project is it? The application’s scalability, complexity, development budget, development time limit, application security, available resources, and so on. The project team always hopes the application will be around for the long haul, meeting the customer’s needs even if business changes occur later. Here are a few tips for you –

  • Give consideration to the ecosystem, community, and availability of programmers are all essential factors to consider.
  • Many developers mistake selecting programming languages solely because they are more popular, trendy, and cool. Avoid this.
  • The programming language used for a project should be chosen based on the needs of the business, not because it has some syntactic sugar or is popular.
  • As a technical manager, you must consider your project’s moving parts. A good perspective at the start of your project aids in selecting a suitable programming language, resulting in less time later on maintaining, scaling up, and securing the project.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • 01

    What is the most widely used programming language

    Python, C, JavaScript, C++, and Java are the most used and popular programming languages.

  • 02

    What are the most popular programming languages for mobile apps?

    The most popular programming languages for mobile are Swift (iOS) and Kotlin (Android), followed by JavaScript / HTML / CSS and Java.

  • 03

    Is .NET a programming language?

    .NET is a framework for building software, not a language itself. The primary (but not only) languages developers use to build software on the .NET Framework are C# and Visual Basic.

  • 04

    Is Python good for enterprise applications?

    Python is the first choice for businesses all over the world. The programming language has proven its worth by making its way into the technology stacks of companies such as Instagram, Netflix, Spotify, Facebook, Microsoft, Pinterest, and others.

Leverage your business by choosing the right programming language.

Consult our specialists for the appropriate choice to boost your business.


Rajnish Kumar Sharma

About the Author

Designation: Technical Project Manager
Forte: Continuous Integration (CI) & Continuous Delivery (CD)
Likes: Movies & Cricket
Dislikes: Bland Food
Claim to fame: Closed a 7-figure deal by showcasing technical expertise, which helped build trust with the client.
What is the Biggest Tech blunder committed: Forgot to set up CI tools when shifting to WFH setup.
Wannabe: Hollywood star

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